Historical Path of Mongolia's Statehood and Independence
Excepts from the statement made by H.E.P.Ochirbat,
President of Mongolia on the occasion of the 790th anniversary
of the foundation of the Mongolian State and the 75th anniversary
of Peoples revolution. Ulaanbaatar, July l,1996
...The Mongolian history of the 20th century has been a history
of long struggle of the Mongolian people for independence,
renaissance and democracy. Let us briefly review our independence,
renaissance and democracy. Let us briefly review our history.
We, Mongolians, have been able to record in the 20th century
a progress which was not possible during the last three centuries.
Specifically, we have first of all safeguarded and consolidated
our national freedom and independence. At the same time, while
orienting ourselves toward the common values of human civilization,
we have been able to make great strides in the fields of culture,
education and health care.
The 1990 democratic revolution could not have been possible
without the victory of the 1911 and 1921 revolutions. And
it would be difficult to describe the fate of the state to
be perfected, of the society to be reformed, as well as of
the country to be developed. It would be pertinent to remember
the price that we had to pay to safeguard our freedom.
Starting from the end of the 19th century, when its rule
weakened, the Ching ruler, in order to resist foreign incursions
and evade internal crisis, in 1901 began to introduce some
reforms in Mongolia as part of their overall New Administration
policy. This policy led to the violation of many restrictions
regarding which understandings had been reached with the Manchu
state, including the provisions of the Law on Outlying region,
which had been adopted in 1691 at the Dolonnor conference
and had since been observed for 200 years until 1891. According
to that law it was prohibited to allow immigrants to settle
in Mongolia, to work at gold mines, to farm or utilize water
resources. For example, the arrival of Chinese settlers led
to land ploughing and farming, influencing the religion and
customs which had evoked the resentment of the Mongolians
and had naturally met with widespread protest. It is in these
circumstances that in July 1911, the Khalkha princes. High
functionaries and lamas met secretly and decided that the
time had come for the Mongolians to protect their state, religion
and territory, their freedom and revive their state independence.
It is as a result of this active struggle in 1911 that the
national revolution occurred, as a result of which Mongolia
separated itself from the Manchu administration, once again
declared its state independence and on 29 December Jebtzundamba
Khutukhtu YIII was proclaimed Bogd Khan, head of the religion
and the State. Thus Mongolia revived its state independence
and a new era of state renaissance began in the 20th century.
The successes and achievements of the national revolution
awakened the national consciousness and will of the Mongolian
people. As a result new, progressive changes took place in
the society. As to the State, a Parliament with advisory powers,
composed of upper and lower houses, was established; the army
was modernized. New customs, leasing and taxation regulations
were introduced. Schools and cultural establishments were
opened. The state began publishing books, sutras and newspapers.
Commodity and money relations developed and small business
One year after revolution China abolished the Manchu rule
and a civil State of China, dominated by capitalists and landlords,
was proclaimed. Although Mongolia and China had overthrown
the Manchu yoke almost at the same time, the latter tried
to hinder the other's independence.
One of the vivid examples of this is the tripartite agreement
concluded in 1915 between Russia, China and Mongolia. In that
agreement the parties only interpreted the notions of "suzerainty"
and "autonomy" differently, but the Mongolian side
had agreed that Outer Mongolia would recognize China's suzerainty
and had thus put its signature under the document. This implies
that Mongolia does not recognize any "autonomy"
but rather it recognizes relationship whereby it would be
under partial Chinese jurisdiction and aegis, and that the
other parties would respect this status. One of the documents
to prove this is the Sino-Russian declaration of October 23,
1913, whereby Russia recognized China's suzerainty over Mongolia.
In fact the 1915 agreement confirmed China's suzerain status.
Some historians tend to interpret the agreement as if Bogd
Khan's Mongolia was an autonomous part of China. However,
this contradicts with historic reality. The reason is that
politically the word "autonomy implies a province that
is a part of a state , with its territory also forming a part
of that state and being within the latter's domain, it exercises
extremely limited rights, In other words, while "suzerainty"
defines special relationship between big and small separate
states, "autonomy" defines relationship between
the subjects of one single state. The Russian October Revolution
of 1917 prevented the 1915 agreement to cause real damage
to and restrict Mongolia's independence, since one of the
subjects of the agreement ceased to exist. This brought about
change in the relations of our two neighbors that rendered
impossible for the agreement to be carried out.
Some aggressive forces having realized that the independence
of Mongolia could not be shaken by the above-said methods,
tried to overrun Mongolia by military force. Thus, under the
pretext of protecting Mongolia from the bolshevik danger,
Kuomintang troops led by Hsu Shu-cheng invaded Mongolia from
the South in 1919, while Baron Ungern, a fugitive of the October
Revolution, infiltrated into the country from the North in
1920. These invasions threatened the freedom and independence
of the Mongolian people.
We should note with pride that the Mongolian nation has never
been short of patriots who fought for the inviolable independence
of the nation. This time the revolutionary struggle was led
by Ts. Bodoo, S. Sukhbaatar, Kh. Choibalsan and their comrades-in
-arms. The Mongolian People's Party established by them, seized
political power, expelled foreign aggressors from the country
with the assistance of Soviet Russia, and protected its independence
and established a limited monarchy with People's Government
in 1921. . .
. , , The struggle between capitalist and socialist ideologies
started in earnest in the world with the victory of the October
Revolution in Russia and the pursuance of the goal of building
a socialist order.
History testifies that when Mongolia was faced with the question
of choosing its state structure and path of development, many
Mongolian intellectuals put forth and debated their ideas.
In 1921-1924 measures were taken to restructure local government
by democratic elections and to democratize the state establishments.
The transition from an absolute monarchy to a limited one
with people's government and then gradually to a Republican
form of government was indeed a great progress in the evolution
of the State structure.
Mongolia has traversed 70 years along the road of socialism,
copying and following the principle of proletarian dictatorship
and choosing the path to socialism by adopting the ideology
of class struggle, following the path of non-capitalist development
as well as enshrining the above-said in its first Constitution.
This was a clear manifestation of how Comintern Soviet Russia's
foreign policy strongly influenced Mongolia's choice of the
road of development and its State structure. While following
this path we achieved a lot and made great progress. We also
made mistakes and errors.
In Mongolia foreign rooted theory of class struggle and the
doctrine of irreconcilable contradictions between the rich
and the poor as well as of proletarian dictatorship, according
to which social development is ensured by elimination and
burying of the rich by the poor of the capitalist by the proletarians
had become a universal guidance. As a direct consequence of
that, many of the genuine patriots, hundreds of outstanding
party, state and army people that had distinguished themselves
during the revolution, a well as honest members of the party,
monks and clergymen, ordinary citizens had fallen victims
to the persecution. This repression can not be justified and
forever will be a dark page in our history.
Nevertheless, the political persecutions could not destroy
the foundations of the peoples power because the Mongolian
people considered the peoples power as a guarantee of their
freedom and independence and strongly depended and consolidated
it under all circumstances.
In any case, Mongolia has come to this day safeguarding its
freedom and independence preserving its unique nomadic civilization,
while at the same time keeping pace with the progress and
development of mankind.
From the last historical lessons we have learned that freedom
and independence are the most cherished ideals of any nation.
We have faced and overcome many challenges to our national
The Declaration of war by the USSR against Japan and the
ensurance of its victory set the stage at the Yalta Conference
of the USA, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for recognizing
the status quo of the Mongolian People's Republic in 1945
as well as for the Chinese recognition of Mongolia. According
to this agreement, on August 8, 1945 the Soviet Union declared
war against Japan and the following day Mongolia also declared
war against Japan and fought shoulder to shoulder with the
Soviet Army. The declaration of war at that time was not an
act of revenge for the 1936 border provocations and the 1939
Japanese aggression at the Khalkhyn Gol region, nor an act
of aggression to invade Japan, but it was a demonstration
to the world community that Mongolia is an independent and
a peace-loving State, and that it was duly contributing to
the cause of eliminating the hot bed of World War II in the
Asia-Pacific region by sending its troops. Mongolian patriots
sacrificed their lives in this war...
...On September 2, 1945 Japan signed the act of capitulation.
Yet, this did not lead to the full guarantee of Mongolia's
China raised yet another precondition for recognizing Mongolia's
independence: it would do so if Mongolia's aspiration for
independence would be confirmed by the Mongolian people themselves
in a national referendum. So the people of Mongolia cast their
votes confirming their status of being citizens of an independent
Mongolia in a national referendum conducted on October 20,
1945. The Chinese Kuomintang Government, which had long been
considering Mongolia as a part of China, had to recognize
the independence of the Mongolian People's Republic and signed
the protocol in the establishment of diplomatic relations
on February 13, 1946. Only 3 years later, in 1949 People's
Revolution won in China which led to the establishment of
the People's Republic of China. This created favorable external
condition as for strengthening the independence of the Mongolian
The Government of the MPR recognized the People's Republic
of China and established diplomatic relations with the latter
on October 6, 1949, laying the foundation for good-neighborly
and friendly relations between the two countries. The two
countries concluded the Treaty in 1962 and pledged to respect
each other's independence and coexist peacefully.
Since 1990, relations between Mongolia and China have been
developing successfully on the basis of the universal principles
of cooperation between the nations of the world. In 1994,
Mongolia and the PRC concluded the Treaty of friendly relations
and cooperation, agreeing on such vital principles as mutual
respect of independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity
and non-aggression. This relations between our two countries
have entered a new stage, which are fully in accord with the
interests of our peoples.
The relations between Mongolia and the Soviet Union, which
had been successfully tested during the difficult war years,
developed in all spheres on the basis of the Treaty of friendship,
cooperation and mutual assistance concluded in 1946 as well
as the Agreement on economic and cultural cooperation.
The delimitation of the borders between Mongolia and the
Soviet Union started with the conclusion of the Treaty of
1958 and was completed in 1979 by their demarcation.
Mongolia and the Russian Federation concluded the Treaty
of friendly relations and cooperation in 1993, incorporating
all the positive in our historical traditional relations and
agreed to further develop our relations and cooperation on
the basis of the principles of mutual respect of sovereignty,
independence and non-interference in each others affairs.
Thus, our relations are successfully developing and expanding
in all fields.
The 20th century has become the most important era in our
efforts to ensure our country's independence and state sovereignty
on the principles of international law and of territorial
integrity and to achieve the socio-economic goals by developing
equitable, friendly relations with our two neighboring great
powers and demarcating the borders.
It should be pointed out that during the 20th century Mongolia
has not only relied on others support in its search for guaranteeing
its freedom and independence. It also mobilized its efforts
and possibilities to achieve this goal.
Cardinal changes have taken place in our external environment.
Today, Mongolia has become a full-fledged member of the United
Nations, maintains diplomatic relations with more than 130
countries and has thus found its proper place in the community
of nations. Mongolia is pursuing an open policy. It has overcome
its restricted and closed status and is developing relations
with many states and nations. Mongolia has defined the principles
and areas of developing its relations with such influential
countries as Germany, France and the United Kingdom in the
form of agreement or declaration. As regards the USA and Japan,
these principles have been declared at the highest level.
At this time when the threat of a nuclear war persists Mongolia
has declared its territory a nuclear weapons free zone and
has obtained the support of all permanent members of the United
Nations Security Council, including its two neighbors as well
as the support of the international community as a whole.
Thus Mongolia has been taking concrete measures to ensure
its security by political and diplomatic means.
Mongolia regained its state independence at the beginning
of this century, followed the communist path of development
for 70 years and from the beginning of the 1990s it chose
the path of building and developing a humane, civil, democratic
society, combining political and economic democratic changes.
It is impossible to separate the present reform process from
the previous 70 years of historic development. There can be
no reform isolated from history. Likewise, it is impossible
to separate our last 75 years from the 800 years history since
the establishment of the first Mongolian State. The unlimited
wisdom of the Mongolian statehood has led this nation from
generation to generation together with its culture and civilization,
and creative vitality.
As a result of disregard for Mongolia's central state authority
and the "Great Yasa" laws, in the middle of the
17th century Mongolia's unified state broke down into the
inner Mongolian Chahar kingdom, Outer Mongolian khanate and
4 Orad union of the Western Mongolia. Since Mongolia lost
its unity, the Manchus were able to subjugate inner Mongolia
in 1634. The Manchu state, that was established on the foundations
of the Zurchid Empire, was gaining strength and at that time
was considered to be the most dangerous enemy of the Mongolian
state. In the face of the growing danger of Manchu invasion,
in 1691, the Mongolians pursued a flexible policy of voluntarily
coming under the protection and patronage of the Manchu emperor.
Thus they were able to preserve their state intact, the people
and livestock pure, and make the Manchus defend them from
the danger of foreign invasion for more than 200 years. This
was, as they say, a truly wise state policy that is much stronger
than a sharp sword or a prevalent force. This policy found
reflection in the Law on Outlying region, which was adopted
at the Dolonnor conference in 1691 and applied for 200 years
until 1891. There are many facts to prove that. To cite just
a few, 18 years after Mongolia had voluntarily joined the
Manchu empire, the "Khalkha Juram" law was drafted
in 1709 (on the 28th day of mid-summer month of the year of
Ox) and adopted at the meeting of all-Mongolian princes and
ministers, headed by Tusheet khan. The Mongolian state which
was under the protection of the Manchu emperor, applied the
law for about 100 years. Thus Enkh Amgalan khan (Kang XI)
ruled that the cases involving the newly joined khalkhas be
tried by their own laws. Even after the adoption by the manchus
of the law on ministry for administering Outer Mongolian state
affairs in 1789 the "Khalkha juram" law was still
used. The status of Bogd khan's ministry for administrative
affairs stipulated that in the cases involving aimag and khoshun
people, the general Mongolian laws shall be applied. All these
testify that Mongolian laws had been in use. It is said that
one does not enter others monastery with own bible. When living
under the Manchu protection, Mongolians applied their "Khalkha
Juram" laws. Isn't it a proof that Mongolia was not invaded
by the Manchus, that did not lose its independence nor was
it destroyed? Symbolic sovereigns and symbolic adherence to
others existed at that time, just like they do today. For
example Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain is considered
to be Australia's sovereign head of state while nobody in
the world puts to question Australia's sovereignty and its
The self-governing states of the British empire had been
known as "dominions". It is said that dominions
pledged allegiance to the British crown and had joined the
British Commonwealth of Nations. In international relations
the dominions were considered independent states and subjects
of international law. Since the notion "dominion"
implied somehow inequality and subordination to another subject
am the term was abandoned in 1947. Instead, the term "member
of the Commonwealth" of Nations" was adopted. It
could be deduced from the above that between 1691 and 1911
Mongolia had retained its relative independence and that it
could be considered that it was a dominion of Manchu Ch'ing
The fact that the Khalkha and Oirad princes, the nobility,
the venerable lamas and other State and religious leaders
had united all the Mongolians that had been fighting each
other, under the banner of one religion, and through this
spiritual unity had saved and protected the nation by that
wise and sound policy, permitted Mongolia to restore its state
independence in 1911 with Bogd Khan as the head of State and
served the basis for declaring once again the State independence.
I would like to express my deep respect to the sacred memory
of the Khalkha, Oirad princes and venerable lamas who were
waging wise struggle for saving and protecting the nation
during the Ch'ing empire.
Historians and scholars have proven that Mongolians have
more than 2000 years of historical tradition of statehood.
790 years ago, on the memorable 16th day of the first summer
month of the year of Tiger of the fourteenth sixty-years-lunar
cycle or on May 25 1206 by Georgian calendar, Chingis Khan
convened on the upper bank of Onon River the Great Assembly
of Mongolian princes based on the ancient tradition of the
Mongolian state institutions and by raising the state nine
white banners he proclaimed the establishment of the Great
Mongol State uniting the Central Asian "felt dwellers".
Thus, a powerful Asian empire called the Great Mongolia was
born on the vast territory extending from the Great Khingan
Mountains in the east to the Tenger (Tian Shan) mountains
in the west, from the Sayan Mountains and Lake Baikal in the
North to the Great Wall in the South.
Different tribes emerged and created their states on the
ancient Mongolian territory, like the Huns, Syanbi, Nirun,Tureg,
Uighur, Kidan and exactly 790 years ago a powerful state of
genuine Mongolian nation uniting all the Mongolian tribes
The establishment of such a powerful state of the Mongolian
nation ruled by Chingis Khan, who emerged as the supreme master
on the historical arena from an austere social life of that
time and with rigid laws, with one banner and symbol, with
its own foreign policy and a centralized economy, a small
but a powerful army, with a unique national culture and civilization,
with a universal Mongolian language and script. The emergence
of such a truly independent State that was not subjected to
any other State, was indeed a great event in the history of
the Mongolian society.
Chingis Khan explained the creation of the great Mongolian
State uniting all Mongol tribes in the following way: "The
Eternal Blue Heaven had empowered my humble body to govern
thousands of subjects. This happened because there was no
order throughout the steppes. Children do not listen to their
parents, youngsters do not follow the elders, husbands do
not trust their wives, wives are not able to stand their husbands
words, followers do not respect the master, noblemen do not
perform their role among their subjects, the rich do not support
the poor, people do not think of living in tranquility everywhere
and the order in tribes and relations have entirely weakened
the state. Everywhere one goes, there is a lot of people acting
willfully. Even liars, thieves, traitors, and bandits have
appeared. Therefore, following the will of the people, from
this moment on I will strive to enforce authority and correct
them and work towards bringing peace and happiness on our
... The Great Mongolian State that emerged on par with other
Asian powerful nations in the early 13th century captured
the attention of other countries and evoked the encroachments,
threats of war and attempts to invade by force. Therefore,
deterring and preventing the threats of other neighboring
nations and keeping the border areas peaceful was one of the
top priority tasks of Chingis Khan. While uniting all Mongolian
tribes under his single rule, he believed that of vital importance
in the development of the Mongolian society was to enhance
and consolidate the country's power, to check foreign invasions
and to safeguard the independence the nation.
On the other hand, foreign interventions prompted disunited
nations to unite. This could be certified by the letters exchanged
between France's Ludwig IX, Philip IY "the fair",
on the one hand and the Mongolian Emperor Munkh, IL Khan Argun,
IL Khan Uliit in 1253, 1289, 1305 requesting Mongol assistance
in the war against the Cristians and asking for help in turning
war into peace.
18 Russian Kingdoms, fighting amongst themselves had been
under the protection of the Golden Horde for 238 years, which
contributed to the creation of a united, powerful Russian
empire. It will not fully correspond to historic truth if
one argues that during that period the Golden Horde state
made plundering raids and occupied the Russian kingdoms. There
was neither demand nor possibility for the Mongolians to do
so. How could the State of Golden Horde protect the Russian
kingdoms from external attacks and keep them under its aegis
if it had made plundering raids or occupied them.
History also notes that the Mongolians had contributed to
reversing the disintegration process in China and participated
in laying the foundations of a united China, and carried out
reforms in Central Asia named after Gazan Khan.
As a result of the military conquests of Chingis Khan, many
countries situated between the Central part of Northern China
and the Southern Siberian territory, from Manchu Zurchid empire
to Caspian Sea were included into the administration of the
Mongolian empire. His sons and grandchildren further expanded
the occupied territories and established a great empire extending
over the Euroasian landmass.
History testifies that all conquests bring misfortune and
suffering to peoples and create obstacles to their progressive
development. History also shows that one of its many consequences
may be its positive influences on the process of the formation
of nations by turning the internecine conflicts into agreements
and unity. The Mongolian conquests too had negative positive
consequences. We, Mongolians, are not proud of the tragic
lessons of history. Civilized mankind is in a position to
appraise realistically the consequences and subtle meaning
of such negative phenomena.
As we see from historical interpretations, Chingis Khan's
conquests had been described in black colors and slandered
by the Ankara tamplers who had spread a "black legend"
after they betrayed the Mongols and had been defeated near
Ayn Jalut in 1260.
The legend alleges that "The Mongols are tatars and
the tatars are hell's barbarian envoys, emerged from the Lower
continent. They torture war prisoners. They annihilate every
living being, and destroy buildings, farm fields, parks".
These terrifying allegations were spread all over Catholic
Europe and the entire Christian world and have poisoned the
people's minds and frozen their hearts.
The famous Russian scholar, Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev, wrote
in this regard that this "black legend" caused no
less mischief than the "black death" (i.e. the plague).
At last in 1307 one night by the order of the king of France
Philip IY "the fair", the notorious tamplers were
rounded up, some of them were burned in Paris and others were
sent to jail.
However, all the enemies of Philip IY "the fair"
came to the defense of the tamplers and started to justify
their activities. They had spread their ideas, among which
was the myth that the tatars were indeed evil messengers.
Dr.L. Gumilev wrote: "A well-targeted accusation is
a powerful weapon. The only precondition for it to succeed
is that the would be deceived ones should have as little information
as possible about the subject. In such circumstances even
a not very foolish person can hardly find out the truth. During
the 14th -15th centuries in Europe there was general lack
of knowledge of Eastern Asia, and in particular, people had
no idea about the history of the region. This created an ideal
condition for spreading various insinuations without any fear
of being exposed. Thus the "black legend " about
evil tatars spread all over Europe.
Today, civilized nations have come to understand this distortion
of the ancient history. As for the Mongolians, we are able,
at last, to once again pay respect to the glories and the
feats of our great Khan.
The Mongolian statehood reached its zenith as the Great Mongolian
Empire because it was based on the traditional oriental social
system and the source of its development were the matter and
mind (Yen and Yan) principles, which were taken not as something
conflicting but rather in its unity. In other words, while
the power was centralized in the h ands of a ruler, a flexible
policy of give and take was practiced.
When the United Mongolian State was established in 1206,
the tendency towards unity prevailed over that of disunity.
The time was not only propitious for the exercise of some
form of democracy but there was indeed a need for it. During
that period there were two different organizations, the "Council
of Wisemen" and the "Great Khurultai /Assembly)
which exercised roughly similar functions of the present-day
parliaments. This reflects the fact that Chingis Khan took
the above tendency into consideration and combined the one
man rule with the elements of democratic form of governance.
Such a well developed political system inherited from the
days of the Huns served as the fertile soil for the growth
of a powerful state system. Chingis Khan used to call on the
"Council of Wisemen" and listened to their recommendations
and proposals on topical issues. "The Great Assembly"
was made up of the Khan, his sons, close relatives, influential
princes and other high officials of that time. The Assembly
deliberated upon and adopted decisions on such important issues
as the selection of the Khan, making war and concluding peace.
As we see today, to be a politician participating in the affairs
of the State, one has to be highly educated and knowledgeable
and must be armed with correct political thinking as well
correct political thinking as well as the ability to look
far ahead, to be both a strategist and a tactician. Thus the
involving of so many eminent persons of the time in the Great
Assembly was truly a wise decision.
he Mongolian State followed Chingis Khan's teachings of shamanist
values that harmoniously blended the contradictions between
the law as the power of central authority. That is why this
served as a model for many countries.
Chingis Khan introduced a ranking system among his subjects
and organized social relations on the basis of rules of respect
for and subordination to the nobles. The "aravt"
or the unit of tens, inherited from the times of the Huns,
became the basic unit of the new ranking system. Chingis Khan
divided the population of the country into units of tens,
hundreds, thousands, headed by noblemen, as well as, into
the guards, nine /generals/ commanders, the Privy Ministers,
the State judge, the Prime Minister and the Khan, making 11
rank altogether. In setting these ranks personal talent, military
feats and the incumbent's contribution to State affairs were
taken into account. The rights and obligations of all ranks
were strictly codified. The ranking system introduced subordination
in the society, strengthened order and improved organization.
Subordination is not just a rule imposed by force, blind
obedience or a cult. It is an important norm of ethics based
on social consciousness and dialectic nature of rights and
Chingis Khan, after completing the reformation of the administration
system, started to rapidly improve the country's economy.
During the reigns of Chingis and Ogedei Khans, the Mongolian
economy stabilized and grew steadily. A wide range of economic
reforms were carried out which included raising the livestock,
developing artisan shops for the production of armaments and
goods, land farming, constructing new towns and settlements,
digging wells, establishing horse relay stations, expanding
trade routes and others.
After the proclamation of the Great Mongolian state, Chingis
Khan in his address gave the following assessment of the feat
of his people: "My people who braved heroically without
fearing sufferings and dangers, closed ranks around me and
shared my joys and sorrows and who make up this great nation
is truly the greatest of all nations. During the times of
trail and hardships my people demonstrated their utmost fidelity
to me until I attained my goal.." In this context it
is evident that when the axiom expressed as "A state
relies on its people and looks after their well-being, the
people, in turn, defend and respect the state" is observed,
the basis of success of the country's activities is secured.
Later Khubilai Khan changed the name of the Empire and renamed
the Great Mongolian Empire to the Great Yuan dynasty and moved
the capital of the Empire from Kharkhorum to Beijing. Even
so during the reign of the Yuan dynasty Mongolia remained
the nucleus of the Empire. Kharkhorum enjoyed the status of
the second capital and maintained the role of being the political,
economic and cultural center of Mongolia proper.
Even when the Mongolian khans resided in Beijing palaces
and ruled from there, the Mongolian people continued to live
in native Mongolia raising and tending their livestock.
In 1368, when the Yuan dynasty collapsed under the blow of
the insurgence of the Chinese people, the khans and princes
moved with their army back to Mongolia and made Kharkhorum
once again the capital city...