Buddhist and Mongolian Glossary
- West Mongolian war hero
- Avalokiteshvara (sans)
- Also: Avoliciteshwara (other transcription) Chenrezi (tib), Janraisig,
The most important mantra "Om Mani Bad Me Hom" is dedicated
to this deity. The Dalai Lama is supposed to be a reincarnation of this
In Tibet he would also be known as Spyan-ras gzigs (With a Pitying Look)
and in Mongolia as Nidü-ber üjegci (He Who Looks With the Eyes).
He is the only Mahayana Buddhist deity commonly worshipped
in Theravada (Way of the Elders) countries that base their worship
on the Pali canon and do not normally recognize the concept of
bodhisattvas. In Sri Lanka he is known as Natha-deva (often
mistakenly confused with Maitreya, the Buddha yet to come).
See also stamps.
- Altan Khaan (1507-1582), Altan Khan
- Mongolian emperor who adopted the Gelugpa doctrine and introduced
the title of Dalai Lama
- Branzii lodoi (mon)
- [wisdom of honey] Mohamed, the founder of Islam
- An ambulant, nomadic monk that would not necessarily belong
to a certain monastery.
- Bituun Baldanlham
- A local god that is said to ride around on a mule during
Tsagaan Sar, and people leave three pieces of ice for her.
- Tendzin Pönjunang (dpon ju nang), a Mongolian Qoshot prince, who initiated
the establishment of Labrang Tashi Chil as a new religious centre in
- Chinggis Khaan
(1162-1227), or Djengis Khan
- Mongolian conqueror and ruler who united the Central Asian tribes.
- A Tibetan word meaning "land of books" and a common ending
to the name of monasteries.
- name of the capital Beijing during the time of The Mongol-Chinese
- Dargye (dar rgyas),
- Mongol prince of Sogwo Arig in central Amdo
- Female deity in Northern Buddhism
- Dalai Lama
- Title in Tibetan Buddhism, originating from the Mongolian word for
ocean. The present Dalai Lama (14th) is the religious and worldly leader
of the Tibetan people and is living in exile in Dharamsala. Though belonging
to the Gelug sect he is not their actual leader.
Also in Mongolia however he is seen as the leader of Buddhism although
there is some conflict with some practitioners.
- Also: Tushegoun.
Considered himself incarnation of Amursana.
He was a Kalmyk from the Volga region, but was greatly honoured in West
Mongolia. Mentioned in Ferdinand Ossendowski's Beasts, Men and Gods.
- Danzan Ravjaa
- the fifth Ravjaa Khutgtu (Noyon Khotagt Danjanravjaa). Rebilious monk,
was proclaimed the Fifth Gobi King in 1809. It is said that he was assassinated
by the Gelugpa.
- a Tibetan word for school
- Djengis Khan
- see Chinggis Khaan
- Dolon-nor, or Dolonnor,
- formerly a large monastic complex and crafts centre in Inner Mongolia
and Mongolia’s most famous bronze workshop
- Döndrub Gyatsho (don grub rgya mtsho),
- Mongolian vice-administrator of Rgolong and founder of Ser---khog
Monastery in Tsongkha
- Enkhbayar, N.
- 21st Prime Minister of Mongolia, from 2000 to present. Was head of the
Government Commission on the Erection of the Statue of Avalokiteshvara
(Janraisig) Buddhisattva, which was responsible for the reerection of
the large standing stutue in the Migjid Jainraisig Temple of Gandan
- Gampo Karpo (sgam or rgan po dkar po),
- the ‘White Old Man’, name of a popular protector deity among Tibetan
and Mongolian faithful
- Gandan Monastery
- Also: Gandantegchinleng, Gandantegchinlen, Gandan Tegchilen, Gandantagcheling
Located in Ulaanbaatar and at this moment the largest and most influential
monastery in Mongolia
Also see: more information
- Ganlin horn
- Horn (musical instrument) made from human tigh bones and used by head
monks to call and exorcise evil spirits. To drive out demons. Used within
the Jononba sect (NI) Gelugpa sect.
- Gelug (-pa) (tib)
- ("Model of Virtue") Also spelled Dge-lugs-pa. One of schools,
or sects, of Tibetan Buddhism. Sometimes referred to as the sect of
the yellow hats. Founded by Tsong Khapa, it emphasizes solid scholastic
preparation before Tantric practice. The Dalai
Lama is part of the Gelugpa, but the official leader is the head
of the, Tibetan, Gandan monastery.
- Ger (mon)
- Also: yurt (Rus).
Traditional housing of the Mongolians. A round, felt tent. Especially
in the countryside this is the most comen housing
- Gompa (tib)
- Spiritual community; often but not necessarily a community of celibate
monks or nuns living close together (usually in individual houses, sometimes
in communal buildings).
- Gurragcha (mon)
- Mongolia's first astronaut (see image)
Born on 5 December 1947, Went on a mission on 22 March 1981 - Soyuz
39: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6
orbital station the eighth international crew under the INTERCOSMOS
programme, comprising V A Dzhanibekov (USSR) and Z. Gurragchi (Mongolian
People's Republic) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments.
Information taken from Astronautix.com.
- Guru Deva Rinpoche
- Lobsang Tenzin Gyatso Pal Sangpo, The Lord of Dharma. Born in Inner
Mongolia (Ordos), he has lived in Tibet and Mongolia and has amongst
others helped to establish the Palace of the Dalai Lama. In 1992 he
returned to Mongolia and is now is formerly the abbot of Amarbayasgalant
and in that extend has been raising money for the restoration of the
temple. He is one of the 84 Siddha´s emanation. By Bareja-Starzynska
and Havnevik (2001) he is seen as the only Mongolian reincarnated
lama and one of the initiators of the revival of Buddhism in Mongolia.
At present he seems to be involved in a conflict with the Dalai lama,
about the practise of Dorchen Shupten
- Gushri Khan (1586-1655),
- Mongolian prince of the Kokonor tribes, conquered Tibet in 1642
and made himself the King of Tibet, although establishing the 5th
Dalai Lama in position of power
- Henan (Tib. Arig Sogwo),
- county in central Amdo with a Tibetanized Mongolian population
- Henan Qinwang,
- the Mongol prince of the southern Yellow River region
- not well defined Tibetan ethnic term relating to either Mongolian,
Turkic or other populations
- indefinite Tib. geographical term, at times designating Turkestan,
- Mongolian chieftain (14th to 15th centuries) who led the first Mongolian
groups to move further southwest into Tibet
- Ikh Khuree
- Monastery located where nowadays the capital Ulaanbaatar can be
found. In 1990 Dashi Choiling Monastery
was established on the previous location of Ikh Khuree.
- See Avalokiteshvara
- Jebtzun Damba (or Living Buddha)
- hemgum Also: Jebtsündampa Khutuktu
(rje btsun dam pa ho thog thu), ‘Holy Venerable Lord’. The most prominent
reincarnation in Mongolian Buddhism and ranked as the third most important
in Tibetan, after the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama. He is a reincarnation
of the Jonangpa lama and scholar Taranatha, the highest incarnation
line of Mongolian Lamaism (Gelugpa), seen as a manifestation of bodhisattva
- Jononba . Jonangpa
- Tradition in Mongolia, Tibet and India. Entered Mongolia at around
1200 and was there merged with shamanism. Because of this Mongolian
and Tibetan Jononba traditions would be rather different.
- Majig Lavdonma (1055-1137) is the Dākinī of Mahāmudrā
Three eyed woman lived in Tibet. The name translates in Only one Mother
of oil lamp. Dākinī of Mahāmudrā [big arm]
small sect in Mahayana tradition. Connecting Indian Buddhism with
Bön pa .
- ("wheel of time") tsagiin khuurdnii nomlol (wgunay
hoj;yna ykblkl) (mon), Duinhor (tib) `The Kalachakra
Tantra contains a comprehensive cosmology and represents a Buddhist
system of exercises for the development of awareness. The aim of these
is the attainment of enlightenment, a spiritual state beyond all our
- karma (san)
- ("deed" or "action") the universal
law of cause and effect
- A ceremonial scarf, in Mongolia often blue.Used to tie
to sacred objects or to offer gifts to people or deities.
- Mayor ethnic in Mongolia
- Khubilai, or Kublai Khan (1215-1294),
- Mongolian ruler and emperor of the Mongol-Chinese Yuan
- Khustai Nuruu
- National Park where the Takh wild
horses are being reintroduced, west of Ulaanbaatar
- khutuktu (mon)
- tulkus (tib) reincarnated lama
- ("the stages of the path to enlightenment") a text by
about the teachings of Buddha
- Lhazang Khan,
- Mongolian ruler who was nominally king of Tibet in 1677-1717
- Ligdan Khan (1592-1634),
- between 1604 and 1634 was prince of the Chakhar tribes in Inner
Mongolia, tried to establish again a Great Khanate modelled after
the example of Chenggis and Khubilai Khan
- Maitreya (san)
- The future Buddha, or the Buddha of the next world age. He is commonly
represented sitting on a raised seat with his feet resting on the
ground as a sign to arise from his seat and appear in the world.
- Manzushiri (san)
- Jamyan (tib), Zoolon Eqshigtu (mon)
- a Mongolian chieftain who fled from Mongolia to Kukunor in 1633
- Northern Buddhism
- Term used for the Diamant Path (Vajrayana)
Buddhism of Mongolia and Tibet.
- Mongolian ethnic group mainly found in western Mongolia and northern
Xinjiang (Altai region)
- An Ovoo, heap or cairn, is the Lamaist equivalent of a shamanists´
sheree. This is a heap of bones formed on the stone altar by
the remains of sacrificed animals at the tailgan. They would be inhabited
by spirits of the locality (Humphrey 1983: 485 n67). According to Kanjurwa
Khutughtu it is a `shrine to the "Dragon King" (loos), our
Mongolian people's local deities (nibdagh and shiddagh).'
(Hyer and Jagchid 1983: 89)
- Ossendowski, Ferdinand
- Author of Beast, Men and Gods (1924) an exploration of mystic Mongolia.
- Pönjunang (dpon ju nang)
- Mongolian Qoshot prince who initiated the establishment of Labrang
- see takh
- The cycle of existence and its reincarnation and temporary needs
- Setsen Gung (16th century),
- Mongolian chieftain or khan
- Mentioned in the Kalachakra tantra. A heavenly nation. There are
to be 25 kings. At the present moment the 17th is in power.
The 25th king Rigden dagva is to attack the Islam world 2227 after
this only Buddhism in the world.
- Shakyamuni (san)
- Shakyatuw (tib), Burkhan Bagshi (mon). The historical Buddha.
- chöten (tib), sobraga (ve.jgug)
- Also: takhi, or Przewalski horse. The only surviving wild
horse in the world indigenous to Mongolia and now being
reintroduced in its natural habitat at Khustai
- ("eternal river of continuity")
- scroll paintings
- Tendzin Wangchug (18th century),
- Mongol prince of the southern Tibetan Ma Chu region
- Tsagaan Sar
- Lit. White month or moon. Name of the first short month
of the lunar Mongolian new year and the New Years celebration
that than takes place.
- Lama Tsenpo (bla ma btsan po, ?-1839), or Tsenpo Döndrub
Gyatsho (don grub rgya mtsho),
- Mongolian vice-administrator of Rgolong and founder of
Ser---khog Monastery in Tsongkha, composed the only all-comprehensive
geography of Tibet as a whole
- Tsongkapa (1357-1419)
- Bogd Zonkhoba (.ku; pkyhk.g)
Initiatar of Gelupa school.
Born in Utai Gumbum palace in Tibet.
- See Dambijantsan
- Tüsiyetü Khan Gömbodorji,
- Prince of Khalkha Mongolia
- Old name of Mongolia's current capital Ulaanbaatar
- Ul Boov
- Pile with an odd number of layers of ceremonial breads
topped with sweats used for special offerings including
the celbration of Tsagaan Sar
- Also: Ulan Bator, Ulaan Bataar, in slang UB. Current capital
Previous names include: Nislel, Urga
- Vajrayana Buddhism
- Buddhism of the Diamant Path practised in, among others, Mongolia and Tibet.
- There are three kind of vows: genen, getsel and gelen.
- Wangden Dorje Palanmu*
- Qoshot-Mongol prince of the Sogwo Arig region in central Amdo
- Damjan Choial (tib), Yamaharadja (mon). the ruler of the hell. Together
with his sister Yamī
- Yamaharadja (mon)
- See Yama.
- Zanabazar (mon)
- The first reincarnation of Jebtzun Damba and first Bogd Gegen of
Mongolia (spiritual and worldly leader). He is especially known for
his great sculpturing as can been seen in the Museum of Fine Arts
named after him. He was born in 1635 and died in 1723.
- Ziluba Pandita
- is supposed to be the first to write about the Shambala
war in the seventh century. He brought three things back
from Shambala. The Tsam dance, Kalachakra Tantra Book and
he was the one to introduce the Tibetan Horoscope.
- The ritual of respectful greeting at the Tsagaan Sar celebration
in general consisting of a seated elder or more respected
person that is greeted by a younger or less respected kin.
Both may or may not hold a khadag
and pronounce the the question "Amar sain uu?"(is
everything well and peacefull?)
pal = Pali | san = Sanskrit |
tib = Tibetan | mon = Mongolian